Questions tagged [architecture]

The high-level design and description of a software system. Architectural design distills away details of implementations, algorithms, and data representation to concentrate on the interaction of "black box" components.

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7 answers
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What is the most effective way to add functionality to unfamiliar, structurally unsound code? [duplicate]

This is probably something everyone has to face during the development sooner or later. You have an existing code written by someone else, and you have to extend it to work under new requirements. ...
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23 votes
7 answers
4k views

Rule of thumb for cost vs. savings for code re-use [duplicate]

Is it a good rule of thumb to always write code for the intent of re-using it somewhere down the road? Or, depending on the size of the component you are writing, is it better practice to design it ...
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274 votes
17 answers
91k views

Is premature optimization really the root of all evil?

A colleague of mine today committed a class called ThreadLocalFormat, which basically moved instances of Java Format classes into a thread local, since they are not thread safe and "relatively ...
17 votes
4 answers
2k views

Staying OO and Testable while working with a database

What are some OOP strategies for working with a database but keeping things unit testable? Say I have a User class and my production environment works against MySQL. I see a couple possible approaches,...
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425 votes
33 answers
312k views

How do I create my own programming language and a compiler for it [closed]

I am thorough with programming and have come across languages including BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, LISP, LOGO, Java, C++, C, MATLAB, Mathematica, Python, Ruby, Perl, JavaScript, Assembly and so on. I can'...
211 votes
16 answers
21k views

When using the Single Responsibility Principle, what constitutes a "responsibility?"

It seems pretty clear that "Single Responsibility Principle" does not mean "only does one thing." That's what methods are for. public Interface CustomerCRUD { public void Create(Customer ...
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72 votes
7 answers
72k views

How essential is it to make a service layer?

I started building an app in 3 layers (DAL, BL, UI) [it mainly handles CRM, some sales reports and inventory]. A colleague told me that I must move to service layer pattern, that developers came to ...
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119 votes
7 answers
61k views

Clean Architecture: Use case containing the presenter or returning data?

The Clean Architecture suggests to let a use case interactor call the actual implementation of the presenter (which is injected, following the DIP) to handle the response/display. However, I see ...
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22 votes
2 answers
9k views

Clean Architecture: What is the View Model?

In his book 'Clean Architecture', Uncle Bob says that the Presenter should put the data that it receives into something he calls the 'View Model'. Is this the same thing as the 'ViewModel' from the ...
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60 votes
3 answers
24k views

How is architectural design done in an agile environment?

I have read Principles for the Agile Architect, where they defined next principles : Principle #1 The teams that code the system design the system. Principle #2 Build the simplest architecture ...
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14 votes
4 answers
3k views

Are there any actual drawbacks to self-referential method chaining?

I recently suggested a method of chaining be implemented for a certain class in a certain project so readability of the code could be improved. I got a "fluent interfaces should not be implemented ...
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98 votes
7 answers
67k views

What is the most accepted transaction strategy for microservices

One of the major issues that I have seen occur in a system with microservices is the way transactions work when they span over different services. Within our own architecture, we have been using ...
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75 votes
6 answers
27k views

Why is it so bad to read data from a database "owned" by a different microservice

I have recently read this excellent article on the microservice architecture: http://www.infoq.com/articles/microservices-intro It states that when you load a web page on Amazon, then 100+ ...
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67 votes
13 answers
8k views

Why is it a good idea for "lower" application layers not to be aware of "higher" ones?

In a typical (well-designed) MVC web app, the database is not aware of the model code, the model code is not aware of the controller code, and the controller code is not aware of the view code. (I ...
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68 votes
9 answers
27k views

Can manager classes be a sign of bad architecture?

Lately I've begun to think that having lots of manager classes in your design is a bad thing. The idea hasn't matured enough for me to make a compelling argument, but here's a few general points: I ...
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64 votes
15 answers
21k views

Is there any reason not to go directly from client-side Javascript to a database?

Possible Duplicate: Writing Web “server less” applications So, let's say I'm going to build a Stack Exchange clone and I decide to use something like CouchDB as my backend store. If I use their ...
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9 votes
2 answers
3k views

How is it possible to write the compiler of a programming language with that language itself [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How could the first C++ compiler be written in C++? You probably heard that Microsoft released a new language called TypeScript which is a the typed superset of JavaScript. ...
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40 votes
5 answers
22k views

Is "Clean Architecture" by Bob Martin a rule of thumb for all architectures or is it just one of the options?

I really liked the concepts in the video The Principles of Clean Architecture by Uncle Bob Martin. But I feel like this pattern is like a combination of Abstract Factory and Builder patterns at its ...
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22 votes
4 answers
4k views

Architectural differences between dynamic and static languages

Are there any major architectural differences when designing applications that will be built on static languages (such as C# or Java) and dynamic languages (such as Ruby or Python)? Which are the ...
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2 votes
2 answers
248 views

What is the best algorithm for implementing a system with a complex execution path?

I am currently working on an implementation that based on a set of user configurations should output a final decision. The multiple configurations are evaluated several times at different stages of ...
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  • 131
0 votes
3 answers
421 views

Tell one, but ask the others?

Consider we have three classes which want to collaborate, then, where is the behaviour? I guess it can only be in one of the three classes or in a fourth one acting than as a procuedural connector-...
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78 votes
17 answers
11k views

How to train yourself to avoid writing “clever” code? [closed]

Do you know that feeling when you just need to show off that new trick with Expressions or generalize three different procedures? This does not have to be on Architecture Astronaut scale and in fact ...
48 votes
9 answers
13k views

Return considered harmful? Can code be functional without it?

OK, so the title is a little clickbaity but seriously I've been on a tell, don't ask (TDA) kick for a while. I like how it encourages methods to be used as messages in true object-oriented fashion. ...
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47 votes
2 answers
18k views

How do you handle shared concepts in a microservice architecture?

I am researching architectural patterns for an application I'm developing and a microservice approach seems like it would be a good choice but I am not sure how to handle interactions between the ...
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22 votes
6 answers
4k views

Should I organize my folders by business domain or by technical domain?

For example, if I'm using some MVC-like architecture, which folder structure should I use: domain1/ controller model view domain2/ controller model view Or: controllers/ ...
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16 votes
1 answer
9k views

Clean architecture - How do I deal with use case reuse?

Trying to apply Uncle Bob's clean architecture to an application I'm maintaining and I'm having difficulties with use cases and duplication/reuse. It's my understanding that usecases should be self ...
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6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is there an established or defined best practice for source control branching between development and production builds?

I struggled in how to phrase my question, so let me give an example in hopes of making more clear what I am after: I currently work on a dev team responsible for maintaining and adding features to a ...
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2 votes
3 answers
2k views

How do you balance out code structuring (few big functions vs. many small ones)?

The golden rule of code structuring is always said as splitting into many sub functions is a good thing. Though I noticed it becomes a problem in complex applications when a class of e.g. 10 bigger ...
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32 votes
20 answers
77k views

Best books on the theory and practice of software architecture? [closed]

I have a couple of developers at my company who wish to move from programming into architecture. What are the best books out there on the theory and practice of software architecture? Include a cover ...
145 votes
9 answers
35k views

Is there any "real" reason multiple inheritance is hated?

I've always liked the idea of having multiple inheritance supported in a language. Most often though it's intentionally forgone, and the supposed "replacement" is interfaces. Interfaces simply do ...
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  • 3,055
29 votes
3 answers
56k views

UML Diagrams of Multi-Threaded Applications

For single-threaded applications I like to use class diagrams to get an overview of the architecture of that application. This type of diagram, however, hasn’t been very helpful when trying to ...
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50 votes
4 answers
26k views

Ways to share DTO across microservices?

My scenario is as follows. I am designing a system designed to receive data from various types of sensors, and convert and then persist it to be used by various front-end and analytics services later....
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32 votes
4 answers
21k views

In MVC should a model handle validation?

I am trying to re-architect a web application I developed to use the MVC pattern, but I'm not sure if validation should be handled in the model or not. For example, I'm setting up one of my models ...
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31 votes
9 answers
7k views

How do you organize highly customized software?

I'm working on a large software project which is highly customized for various customers arround the world. This means that we have maybe 80% code which is common between the various customers, but ...
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34 votes
3 answers
24k views

How to build completely modular web applications [closed]

In the coming months we're going to begin a project where we take a system we've built for a client (v1) and rebuild it from scratch. Our goal with v2 is to make it modular, so that this specific ...
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125 votes
10 answers
107k views

Don't Use "Static" in C#?

I submitted an application I wrote to some other architects for code review. One of them almost immediately wrote me back and said "Don't use static. You can't write automated tests with static ...
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28 votes
3 answers
20k views

When should a class or module be in a separate Assembly/DLL?

Are there any guidelines for deciding when a class should be in its own assembly/DLL? I often see two schools of thought: 1) Every "grouping" of classes belongs in its own DLL e.g. Repositories, ...
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10 votes
3 answers
3k views

Supporting multitenancy

What are the typical challenges that arise when converting a single-tenant app into a multitenant app? Security and data isolation strike me as the most significant. What are some others? I'm one of ...
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19 votes
4 answers
20k views

Dependency Injection and Singleton. Are they two entirely different concepts?

I've been hearing about using the dependency injection over Singleton for my colleague. I still can't make out if it they are two orthogonal patterns which can be replaced with one another? Or is DI a ...
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  • 329
11 votes
2 answers
4k views

Where to validate domain model rules that depend on database content?

I'm working on a system that allows Administrators to define Forms that contain Fields. The defined Forms are then used to enter data to the system. Sometimes the Forms are filled by a human via a GUI,...
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7 votes
1 answer
12k views

Understanding Application binary interface (ABI) [closed]

I am trying to understand the concept of Application binary interface (ABI). From The Linux Kernel Primer: An ABI is a set of conventions that allows a linker to combine separately compiled ...
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  • 5,301
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Definition of a 3-tier system

People often claim that they are following a '3-tier (or n-tier) architecture', and sometimes they then claim to be switching to a Domain Model. But I really never have understood what this mythical '...
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1 vote
1 answer
4k views

Should we always write Defensive null check in code? [duplicate]

Are there any scenarios where we should not write defensive checks for null? Should we write defensive code or check for NULL every time we have passed a parameter or received a value back from a ...
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150 votes
8 answers
59k views

Criticism and disadvantages of dependency injection

Dependency injection (DI) is a well known and fashionable pattern. Most of engineers know its advantages, like: Making isolation in unit testing possible/easy Explicitly defining dependencies of a ...
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167 votes
17 answers
268k views

Is it better to return NULL or empty values from functions/methods where the return value is not present?

I am looking for a recommendation here. I am struggling with whether it is better to return NULL or an empty value from a method when the return value is not present or cannot be determined. Take ...
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91 votes
7 answers
39k views

How do microservice system architectures avoid network bottlenecks?

I've been reading a lot about microservice architectures for server applications, and have been wondering how the internal network usage is not a bottleneck or a significant disadvantage compared to a ...
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  • 1,459
94 votes
8 answers
73k views

RESTFul: state changing actions

I am planning to build a RESTfull API but there are some architectural questions that are creating some problems in my head. Adding backend business logic to clients is an option that I would like to ...
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  • 1,099
63 votes
3 answers
51k views

Uncle Bob's clean architecture - An entity/model class for each layer?

BACKGROUND : I'm trying to use Uncle Bob's clean architecture in my android app. I studied many open source projects that are trying to show the right way to do it, and I found an interesting ...
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77 votes
7 answers
91k views

Application layer vs domain layer?

I am reading Domain-Driven Design by Evans and I am at the part discussing the layered architecture. I just realized that application and domain layers are different and should be separate. In the ...
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81 votes
9 answers
53k views

Should Repositories return IQueryable?

I have been seeing a lot of projects that have repositories that return instances of IQueryable. This allows additional filters and sorting can be performed on the IQueryable by other code, which ...
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