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Questions tagged [internationalization]

Internationalization (i18n) is the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes.

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In the usual "3-layer" architecture pattern, where would one best create dynamic, user-readable strings?

I've been trying to build this (principally desktop, but could eventually be turned into a cloud app) document editor program for a while and have it laid out using the broad principles of the 3-Layer ...
The_Sympathizer's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
89 views

Translation Server-side vs. Client-side when having the same locales files

I'm currently working on a Turborepo project (monorepo architecture) and I have managed t share my locales files to both back-end and front-end parts. This means I share the exact same keys across ...
Jolan B.'s user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
560 views

How to handle i18n on a microservice architecture project?

I'm currently developing a bot for Discord that sends news over webhooks to multiple servers and I've decided to separate that news onto it's own microservice because the bot runs multiple instances ...
Blastcore's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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MVC: Should View get strings of GUI components directly or should the controller pass strings to View?

I have an MVC application in Java with GUI components in a View class. The GUI has to support two languages, so texts on buttons etc. depend on which language was set at start up. Strings are in ....
Samil's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
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Designing an API for international markets

I am working on a REST API for a company that, until recently, has been focused on the Australian market. The result of this is that the API has resources and fields which model the Australian market, ...
David Keaveny's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
113 views

How to handle functional differences in an app in different locales?

I'm working on an app that needs to be localised for two different countries, let's call them Atlantis and Buranda. As well as translating the site into the relevant languages and displaying dates, ...
Allan Lewis's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
88 views

How can i keep my code changes and text localizations synchronized?

For a localized service or application, whenever one is checking in code with new strings, it implies that localization for those strings is needed. Now, I need to ensure that there are no unlocalized ...
Asad Iqbal's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
610 views

How do I share translations between a .NET application and a react application?

I currently have two applications where one is a landing page (built in react) and another is a web page that lets users explore data (Written in ASP.NET 4.7). I'm currently using resx files to handle ...
avenmia's user avatar
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-1 votes
3 answers
146 views

What is the correct status code when serving different content than requested?

I'm working on a website that has different languages, being English the master language. Most of the site is fully translated but English content has a bigger team so it usually goes a bit ahead of ...
JCalcines's user avatar
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78 votes
7 answers
6k views

What's the use case for formatting monetary values with a *system-dependent* currency symbol?

Many high-level programming languages have built-in features to format a number with a system-dependent currency symbol: -- Outputs $100.00 (en-US) or € 100,00 (de-AT) Console.WriteLine(100.ToString(&...
Heinzi's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
6k views

How to handle errors from back-end in front-end and different languages?

I have a rest api and a reactjs front end, in some cases, the api will send an error to the front end and I need to display that error. My app will support multiple languages, so the error must be ...
Vencovsky's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to implement a website with translatable articles?

I am developing a website that is supposed to be in at least two languages. I am a skilled developer, but I never had to deal with internationalization. The owner of the site will create a new article ...
SteeveDroz's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
224 views

Is there any guideline from Unicode on how to deal with graphemes that have no base character?

A valid sequence of code-points can begin with one or more combining mark, which form a grapheme cluster that has no base glyph. I'm unsure how that should be handled, if at all. For example, consider ...
Wes's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
32 views

Locale specific guidelines for naming people and organisations

I've been researching different approaches to i18n in web applications and have found a lot of great resources for locale specific information like CLDR. There is one area where I really can't find ...
oorst's user avatar
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0 answers
34 views

Locale selection for searching and sorting in web app

In a web app i'm working on, there's some i18n/l10n support. Some entities (I'm using locations as an example) support having names in multiple locales. The app has a primary_locale (defaulting to 'en'...
darkphoenix's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
451 views

Hexagonal architecture and translations: how to model it properly?

Imagine a backend service modeled by a hexagonal architecture, where the domain has a class modeling, let us say, a Step of a creative flow that a mobile app will use: class Step( val stepId: ...
Bertuz's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
413 views

Best practices for internationalization: composed sentences?

I am working on a project where clients are able to create objects in a database. Each of these objects has a description string that describes the object. Let's assume we are looking at an object ...
wsg's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
345 views

Internationalization in .net core

I am currently in the process of developing an ASP.NET Core application which requires internationalization to Russian. I have been reading over the documentation that Microsoft provide for .NET Core ...
Stephen's user avatar
  • 8,838
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Android application to RTL (Arabic)

I have an Android application (E-commerce) in English, Now I want to change language to Arabic and RTL(Right to Left) I am new in that, where and how much efforts it take? What specific problems ...
Aditya Shah's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
153 views

How can I live-update my internationalization Resource Bundles?

I'd like to add translations without waiting for a full new release. In other words, I'd prefer that the Resource Bundles not be part of my Git repository; and that they be easily editable and ...
Joshua Fox's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
903 views

Should locale text include punctuation?

When defining localization text, I often worried about whether I should translate the whole string including punctuation, or just translate the text part, for example: Translate whole text: "...
ocomfd's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
2k views

API internationalization

I have a question about architecture and I would like to know your opinion. Given a product formed by an API and several consumers (Android apps, iOS apps, web apps ...), where should I implement the ...
Nove's user avatar
  • 63
0 votes
1 answer
248 views

Support i18n in existing application?

I have java/spring based web application with front end in JSP/HTML/JS/Jquery. We already have spring based i18n support. In JSP labels are coming from property files. html/browser download the ...
user3198603's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
371 views

Unicode Telugu language characters

I am developing a mobile app in android in which I use Telugu (Indian language) texts. On my mobile Telugu language alphabets are available. Therefore, I am not facing any problem for testing my app. ...
Vempati Satya Suryanarayana's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
121 views

How to handle regional versions of a website

The site I'm building currently has three different regional versions (Australia, Germany, rest-of-world). These will be deployed to seperate urls. It's a static site, hosted on s3 using react. The ...
Christian Scott's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
7k views

Localization (i18n) with Spring boot with data in database

I am writing a Spring boot app with Thymeleaf, which should support two languages (or more). I have set up the locale resolver and messages.properties so now my app can translate static messages on ...
Miha Jamsek's user avatar
7 votes
4 answers
517 views

Should the "model" part of MVC deal with the internationalization layer?

I have seen this done in some applications, and it's not clear to me that this is ok or if it's a separation of powers violation.
Scott C Wilson's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
56 views

Is there a correct way to internationalise labels around a spinner (stepper)?

Somewhere in our GUI we have a string where a spinner (sometimes called a stepper, depending on what toolkit you use) is sandwiched between two labels which make a complete sentence, "Use 1 in every n ...
Hakanai's user avatar
  • 237
1 vote
2 answers
529 views

Handle country specific properties such as price and currency

I have an architecture front-end / back-end, specifically an Android app and a backend. I want that the app user can see different prices and currencies depending on their geo-localization. So my ...
peval27's user avatar
  • 119
4 votes
1 answer
414 views

Language independent logging system

I have a software which logs various events into a database (SQLite). Currently the stored datas are : Message Date Category Criticality The logs are written in the current software language. Which ...
grunk's user avatar
  • 183
0 votes
1 answer
157 views

Language code for translation placeholders and translation context?

I'm planning to add a feature to my application where you can switch to the "Translation" locale and then see the names of the translation placeholders in the application instead of the actual ...
chiborg's user avatar
  • 273
38 votes
6 answers
8k views

How to properly localize numbers?

Which caveats should I be aware while localizing numbers in my front-end application ? Example: In Brazilian Portuguese (pt-BR) we split thousands with dots and decimals with commas. In US English (...
Machado's user avatar
  • 4,120
4 votes
1 answer
4k views

Messages' translations in microservice architecture

I work with monolith web application written in PHP that is being migrated step-by-step into microservices. I would like to keep the same UI with several new features that have been implemented during ...
Kuba T's user avatar
  • 161
1 vote
1 answer
155 views

centralize internationalized strings to prevent DRY in the tests suite vs readability

I have a program already internationalized with gettext module, however it bugs me for days whether should I centralize the strings (make them variables, so they can be referred by the main program or ...
Abirafdi Raditya Putra's user avatar
18 votes
5 answers
4k views

How to organize localization string resources?

We're developing a large application, consisting of many small packages. Each package has its own set of resource files for localization. What's the best approach to organizing and naming the ...
Daniel Wolf's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
594 views

Strategy to display value for a HTML select

Strategy to display value for a html select I have a spring boot, application. On the client side, I use JQuery I would like to know the strategy to display "static value" for a html select. ...
robert gagnon's user avatar
17 votes
3 answers
890 views

Accessing i18n objects from different scopes

I have been building a personal framework of mine which started off as a way to learn the MVC pattern and has progressed now into something that I like more than most frameworks out there (which is ...
php_nub_qq's user avatar
  • 2,224
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

Is it worth the effort to use culture invariant string formatting in single-culture applications?

Sometimes, we need to stuff an integer ID into a string, for example when generating HTML form <select> items. Calling int.ToString() can result in digits outside the range [0-9] in certain ...
boot4life's user avatar
  • 695
8 votes
2 answers
793 views

Does it make sense to internationalize logs?

What are the valid use case for internationalizing logs? Especially, are there any uses that make sense for a web application. I'm working on converting the logging API used by a web application from ...
jpaugh's user avatar
  • 239
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

How do you mix left-to-right and right-to-left scripts without your files looking crazy?

Say your native language is Hebrew, and you're working in a programming language like Python 3, which lets you put Hebrew in source code. Good for you! You've got a dict: d = {'a': 1} and you want ...
user2357112's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
1k views

Best practice for storing external text to then place in html

Sorry if I'm not explaining the question well in the title, I'm not sure of the correct lingo. Let me give you an example instead. So this is a normal HTML file. <span>Welcome to the site!</...
jackdh's user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
1 answer
226 views

Best practices for internationalization in layered applications

I'm building a new application in JSE for which I want to support internationalization. I've never built such an application. I'm looking for the best practices for internationalization. The ...
MickMRCX's user avatar
  • 103
0 votes
1 answer
112 views

What would be the best technique for website localization in MVC?

Currently I'm working on a big website that will be published on almost 40 domains with different languages. My question is what would be the best way of doing localization/internationalization. I'm ...
Coder's user avatar
  • 93
3 votes
0 answers
80 views

How can I handle common string content on a multiplatform mobile app?

I'm working on a mobile app that has been developed for iOS and Android (both native), localised into over 10 languages. A lot of the static string content in the app is common between the two ...
Denis Grangé's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
344 views

How to i18n notifications generated on server and read by distinct clients?

The server side detect events and store the information to notify the user. When the user opens one of the multiple clients (web, Android, iOS) it sees a indication that there are new notifications. ...
Filipe Borges's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
213 views

How do you handle country specific behaviors?

I'm currently developping the website of my company, which is located in France. I always pay attention to giving explicit generic english names to my variables. For obvious reasons, and of course, ...
Antoine Pinsard's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
216 views

Working with external translators in .NET

I am working on a .NET project (happens to be an MVC website) that is being deployed in 5 languages. We have several hundred text strings in various .resx files, which is working great. However, the ...
brichins's user avatar
  • 119
0 votes
1 answer
388 views

Why isn't gettext parameterized? [closed]

Currently: translators are exposed to programming language detail text is programming language specific (%s) translators cannot change ordering of strings (for example: family name comes first in ...
kyqibmbo's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
796 views

Internationalization on a service layer of an application

My specific problem is how to handle internationalization of specific messages from an architecture layer that is not the view layer(e.g service layer). I've created an architecture based on ...
Jorge Campos's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
443 views

Requesting information regarding the use of MUI vs. the use of GetText for i18n/L10n of Windows desktop applications

I have spent the past two days investigating which technology I will use to support translations of text strings (as part of an overall internationalization migration) for an archaic (VC6) Windows ...
Dan Nissenbaum's user avatar