Questions tagged [python]

Python is a dynamically typed, high-level interpreted programming language. Its design focuses on clear syntax, an intuitive approach to object-oriented programming, and making the right way to do things obvious. Python supports modules and exceptions, and has an extensive standard module library. Python is general-purpose and thus used widely, from the web to embedded systems.

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1 answer
224 views

Access control to Django App running on private server

I am a self-learning programmer (with a fair share of python knowledge), and currently a company asked to develop a simple application so that they can track employee expenses (and I thought of using ...
1 vote
1 answer
127 views

How does one add observability to python code without affecting code quality?

We're working an agile project and designing as we go on a new python commandline app / systemd service for some fancy in-house project. Right now, we're supposed to be adding an observability / ...
-3 votes
2 answers
133 views

Polymorphism with variable default argument count

I'm in the process of writing a library in Python, and I've run into a design problem concerning the use of polymorphism. I have an ABC with abstract method 'foo': class A(ABC): @abstractmethod ...
0 votes
1 answer
442 views

Should I Add Integration Or Unit Tests To Django Views

I am currently exploring adding unit tests to my Django REST Framework project. I totally understand adding unit tests for other components of the app like models. However, I'm stuck at testing views. ...
0 votes
1 answer
279 views

Optimal Simplification of Transposition Products

I am looking to take a product of a large number of transpositions, and boil it down to a smaller number of products. I have the following code, and would like some input on efficient ways to boil ...
4 votes
4 answers
2k views

How to mock REST services for testing

I am currently building an application that consists of multiple small rest services that communicate between them. For example, a request to service A might make requests to services B and C in the ...
3 votes
2 answers
263 views

Should a decorated function know about its decorator from a semantic point of view?

In this toy example some_function is... some function that takes a dict as an input and modifies it in place somehow. def some_function(dct: dict): """Do something to the items in ...
3 votes
2 answers
342 views

How does the Python runtime know which object a method is bound to?

When defining methods in a class we do have an argument for the object on which the method is invoked i.e self. Say I have a class Foo, and an instance of it: class Foo: def m(self): pass ...
3 votes
2 answers
607 views

Method object creation in Python data model

I've been reading the article on the data model of Python on its Reference website, and have been confused about this part: When the attribute is a user-defined method object, a new method object ...
2 votes
3 answers
133 views

Which association should be in the class diagram

there are a vehicle class and customer class . In short, in the customer class there is a function that shows 'can this person or company rent that car'.The function uses a object of vehicle and ...
0 votes
2 answers
99 views

Using an instance method or a function with conditional logic based on type

I'm developing a data pipeline in Python. We receive a variety of different types of data set that we need to process (e.g. xml, json, csv and some Excel workbooks) - where processing involves parsing ...
-2 votes
1 answer
92 views

Are there some best practices how to build a client library for an API?

I was tasked to create an API client library for our already existing API. I tried to research some ways how to approach this but couldn't find anything. Are there some best practices how to build ...
1 vote
0 answers
95 views

How to structure your Python code with asynchronous and synchronous parts

I have a Python FastAPI server application which naturally guides you towards the asynchronous paradigm. For legacy reasons, I have to support two backends, one which is purely synchronous and one ...
-3 votes
1 answer
206 views

Better way to type casting an object from one custom class to another [closed]

I have one object, its class inherits all property from GUI class, that takes and some values and one function during instantiation, that handles click and upon receiving the click it calls the ...
0 votes
0 answers
33 views

Best design pattern for integrating Google OAuth with existing JWT token-based authentication system

We currently have a backend authentication mechanism in place that utilizes JWT tokens. Users sign in or sign up using email and password, and upon successful authentication, the backend issues JWT ...
2 votes
2 answers
503 views

Is this architecture overkill? What is a good way to architect this software?

I have an algorithm I am trying to implement that has steps 1 to 5. There are several different ways I could implement each step. Each calculation step is essentially just an astronomy calculation, ...
-2 votes
4 answers
354 views

Compare version numbers

I need to compare versions of a software. The requirement is that I need to know if a given version is older (smaller), same or newer (higher) than another one. The version format is XX.X.XX where: ...
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

Django - should I create related objects immediately or on demand?

Let's say you have a ForeignKey MyModel.related_model and this related_model has all fields either null=True or default=something. Like User.userprofile which I use on several places in my project. ...
0 votes
3 answers
82 views

Python API - store data in SQL AND NoSql

I am a student and am currently programming an API in Python. Among other things, it is possible to register, log in, create a user profile with data, etc. I would like to be able to store and ...
1 vote
1 answer
79 views

How to test integration with an infinite generator

I'm struggling to (integration) test a component that makes use of an infinite generator. Background: At a really high level, this component is essentially a "middleman" in a kafka workflow. ...
-1 votes
1 answer
102 views

How to structure a modular MITM proxy with python

To explain what I'm trying to accomplish. Sometimes I visit website1.com, here I can download Linux ISOs but it's a bit annoying because it has a lot of ads, some of which are launched via javascript ...
0 votes
1 answer
218 views

Where to create repository instances?

I've several repositories. To make them testable, I add the ORM session in the constructor. class Repository: def __init__(session): self.session = session def save(object): self.session()...
1 vote
2 answers
154 views

Dependency resolution of tasks which have crontab information

I want to illustrate my problem statement with a use case. I am building a trading system that acts as a container for deploying trading strategies. The trading strategy comprises dependent tasks. Let'...
2 votes
2 answers
696 views

Why access the attributes of a Python class by reference?

Attribute references and instantiation In this link, that is part of the official Python documentation, I have found the following information: Class objects support two kinds of operations: ...
1 vote
1 answer
88 views

How to show type introspection in UML

I'm modeling a part of Python/Qt GUI code which uses reflection to construct a collection of widgets, in a form. The code works like this: There is a Model which has attributes of various types, ...
-3 votes
1 answer
108 views

Learn a framework on a project, or mix languages between backend services [closed]

I am designing my next project, which will do various domain-specific tasks, but all that will be controlled and used via a generic crud web app. I have been professionally using Java with Spring for ...
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why are there two ways to retrieve values from a dictionary in Python?

In Python there are basically two ways to get a value from a dictionary: dictionary["key"] dictionary.get("key") Is there any - maybe historical - reason for this behavior? I ...
43 votes
4 answers
35k views

Difference between a REPL and interactive shell

Noob question. I am not quite able to tell the difference between a REPL and an interactive shell just by reading the definitions on Wikipedia. Wiki notes that REPL is a particular kind of ...
1 vote
2 answers
213 views

Splitting up large SQLAlchemy model

Anybody have advice on splitting up a large SQLAlchemy model into smaller parts? I have a ~2000 line model called Article that is becoming difficult to manage. We often have to scroll and scroll to ...
3 votes
1 answer
335 views

Data processing pipeline design for processing data

I have a use case for which I need to build a data processing pipeline Customer contact leads data coming from different data sources like csv, data base, api has to be first mapped to a universal ...
1 vote
2 answers
227 views

How do I test a method which interacts with a database?

So I have a database class which has methods dedicated to specific actions. For example I have below method which accesses and writes to a table in the database: def trackUserPerformance(self, ...
2 votes
1 answer
251 views

In python when is absolutely preferable use a class than a module?

Python is the language I use most in this period. My background in Java Before start learning Python I have programmed in Java language. In Java all code is written inside the methods of a class and ...
0 votes
0 answers
53 views

How to structure my DB setup?

I have made a small project to try and learn to implement SQLite-DBs into my projects. For the DB part, I use sqlmodel and followed their tutorial. For the creation of the engine however, they use a ...
0 votes
1 answer
69 views

Best practices for tuning an eval of an ML model

Let's say that I have a service like that takes in some text, classifies it, and then outputs the classification. The critical path between entry and classifier is as follows: Query -> ...
3 votes
1 answer
163 views

How to structure repositories for a small number of entities?

I am working on a project implemented in DDD style, and I use Repository architecture pattern to persist domain changes. I have multiple roles in domain layer, and that's what raises my question - how ...
2 votes
1 answer
139 views

How do I structure my functions (and classes?) which interact with my Database/ORM?

So I am working on my first project using SQLite and SQLModel as ORM. Creating and handling the first table in my database was easily structured: A function for each CRUD-Operation. But now I have ...
22 votes
1 answer
51k views

Why use classes when programming a tkinter gui in python

I program primarily in python and have programmed a couple of GUI's with Tkinter, every tutorial I have ever seen has recommended defining and using a class for the GUI, but my GUI runs flawlessly ...
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Endpoint design for single and bulk requests

I'm working on a project in Python and want to get it hosted for others to use, the internal recommendation has been to host it on AzureML (it is a non-machine learning model, but follows the same ...
13 votes
3 answers
2k views

Using `any` to indicate a wildcard value

I'm writing a validator class to validate certain request objects against a known format. Rule declarations and the validator will both be written entirely in Python, and I don't need to store the ...
0 votes
3 answers
579 views

Which is the best data structure to use when you want to randomly pick elements & use them, but also delete them after use

I have 1000 lines in a text file. I want to read them into some data structure[DS]. After reading them, I will be randomly picking 50 lines from the DS (using a Random Number Generator). Next time 50 ...
2 votes
0 answers
153 views

Managing environments in a FastAPI app using Docker

Bit of context: I'm an Economics major that somehow ended up developing an API that's becoming a whole software project, so please bear with me. So, after I got asked to add logs I noticed I should ...
3 votes
2 answers
150 views

Conceptual Software Design: Managing Large Number of LEDs with Raspberry Pi

Question Summary I am writing a program that will run on a Raspberry Pi 4b+ designed to manage hundreds of LEDs, as well as a few other devices (such as small motors). This is for a project I am a ...
2 votes
1 answer
169 views

Design patterns for long chains of computations in python (functions vs classes?)

A recurring pattern which I see in my code is chaining together a lot of functions. This is the result of a large number of processing steps needed for a given task. This could be e.g. a data ...
20 votes
5 answers
5k views

Python decorators and Lisp macros

When looking Python decorators someone made the statement, that they are as powerful as Lisp macros (particularly Clojure). Looking at the examples given in PEP 318 it looks to me as if they are just ...
7 votes
4 answers
2k views

Sometimes private functions are simply yet-to-be-extracted internal units of functionality. So why not test them?

Sometimes private functions of a module or class are simply yet-to-be-extracted internal units of functionality, which might deserve their own tests. So why not test them? We will write tests for them ...
1 vote
3 answers
225 views

What is more Pythonic way to handle try-except errors?

I have two different options in mind: def foo(): try: # do something interesting except: # report error here return bar bar = foo() or def foo(): # do something ...
1 vote
2 answers
58 views

Hierachy and API design for a CSS-selector-related Python library

I'm writing a Python CSS-selector library that allows one to write these kinds of expressions in Python as a pet project. The goal of the library is to represent selectors in a flat, intuitive and ...
0 votes
0 answers
47 views

Splitting a data set for CNN

Suppose, I have a tensor tfDataSet as follows: data3d = [ [[7.042 9.118 0. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 0. 0. 1. ] [5.781 5.488 7.47 0. 0. 0. 0. 1. 1. 0. 0. ...
2 votes
1 answer
654 views

Exchange data between python and angular with flask

I am trying to determine which is the best arquitecture to my application, I am planning to use python, mysql, angular and flask as an intermediate between python and angular. I have all the shots of ...
-1 votes
2 answers
112 views

Architecture for EOD (end of day) stock exchange prices

I need to work out the architecture for a NASDAQ frontend charting application (a desktop app in .Net). Note that this is NOT for real-time quotes. NASDAQ provides an api that gives historical pricing,...

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